SOC 331 Week 5 Quiz

SOC 331 Week 5 Quiz

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SOC 331 Week 5 DQ 2 Alternative to Retributive Justice

SOC 331 Week 5 DQ 2 Alternative to Retributive Justice

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Alternative to Retributive Justice. In Chapter 5 of the text, the author discusses four alternatives to retributive justice: corrective justice, reformative justice, restorative justice, and transformative justice (see Section 5.3).

In “Case Study 5.5 – Dead Woman Walking,” the text describes the circumstances that led to the 1998 execution in Texas of Karla Faye Tucker. Before she was executed she requested, but was denied, clemency. Her cause was supported by many political, correctional, and moral leaders.

Would the application of any of the four alternatives to retribution have produced a more just outcome? Your initial post must explain and apply each of the four alternative theories of justice to Karla Faye Tucker’s case. Also, critically evaluate each of the alternatives in the circumstances of her case. Why does each theory produce a more or less just outcome than the approach actually followed by the State of Texas? Finally, is the utility of each alternative limited to the unusual circumstances of Karla’s case or do they have value more generally to merit consideration as a more just approach than retributive justice?

SOC 331 Week 5 DQ 1 Retributive Justice and Mandatory Life Imprisonment for Juvenile Offenders

SOC 331 Week 5 DQ 1 Retributive Justice and Mandatory Life Imprisonment for Juvenile Offenders

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Retributive Justice and Mandatory Life Imprisonment for Juvenile Offenders. In Chapter 5 of the textbook, the author examines retributive justice from the standpoint of the means of punishment (Section 5.2). He calls attention to the length of prison sentences and, in particular, the issue of mandatory life sentences for juvenile offenders.

In 2012, the U.S. Supreme Court declared laws that require judges to impose life-without-parole sentences for juveniles to be in violation of the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition of “cruel and unusual punishments.” The decision (Miller v. Alabama) was a 5-4 split in the Court – which is typical of many such decisions that apply the cruel and unusual punishment provision.

Your initial post must analyze the retributive justice issues of mandatory, life-without-parole sentences. Consider the facts ofMiller v. Alabama: Defendant Miller, a 14-year old boy, with an accomplice beat the victim with a baseball bat and set his trailer on fire with the victim inside. Defendant Miller was tried as an adult for capital murder while committing arson.

Is a mandatory, life-without-parole sentence just in such circumstances? Remember that “just” may or may not be the same as “constitutional.” Summarize both the pros and the cons of your answer to this question, and critically evaluate these pros and cons, applying principles of retributive justice discussed in the text. Your evaluation must respond to the pros and cons, giving persuasive reasons why you agree with some and disagree with some

SOC 331 Week 4 DQ 2 Commutative Justice and the National Debt

SOC 331 Week 4 DQ 2 Commutative Justice and the National Debt

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Commutative Justice and the National Debt. In Chapter 4 of the text, the author examines commutative justice across the generations (see Section 4.5). This idea arises from the writings of British political thinker Edmund Burke (1790):

“Society is indeed a contract… a partnership in all art, a particular in every virtue, and in all perfection. As the ends of such a partnership cannot be obtained in many generations, it becomes a partnership not only between those who are living, but between those who are living, those who are dead, and those who are to be born…”

(Reflections on the French Revolution, para. 165)

Burke’s idea of a social contract between generations is often cited in contemporary debates about the spiraling nation debt of the United States. What do young and old citizens living today owe, as a matter of commutative justice, to generations of citizens who are not yet born? Is it just for today’s citizens to demand policies (e.g., low taxes and high levels of government service) that create huge debts for future generations to pay?

SOC 331 Week 4 DQ 1 Commutative Justice and Embryo Adoption

SOC 331 Week 4 DQ 1 Commutative Justice and Embryo Adoption

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Commutative Justice and Embryo “Adoption.” In Chapter 4 of the textbook, the author examines commutative justice as arising from contractual relationships – a specific contract among particular parties or a broader social contract on which a community or nation is based. He also discusses how the interpretation or enforceability of a specific contract may be influenced by the principles and values that are part of the broader social contract.

At the end of 2012, more than 600,000 frozen embryos are being maintained in cryopreservation storage facilities in the United States. Some of them are the subject of agreements in which one party transfers one or more embryos to another party for implantation. Such agreements may be called “Embryo Adoption Agreements,” although there is controversy over the use of the term adoption since the legal status of an embryo is different from that of a living child. In recent years, there have been a number of legal disputes arising from these agreements. Cynthia Marietta describes one of these disputes, McLaughlin v. Lambert, in her article, Frozen embryo litigation spotlights pressing questions: What is the legal status of an embryo and can it be adopted?

First, carefully read this article. Then, in your initial post, analyze the issues of commutative justice in this case, and apply the principles discussed by both Marietta and the textbook (see Section 4.4). Be sure to consider whether values that are part of the broader social contract (e.g., the U.S. Constitution) may influence how the specific contract between the two couples in this case should be interpreted justly. Consider this case from both sides of the dispute as well as from the perspective of society’s interest in the status of frozen embryos.